Aircraft: Boeing 737-700

On Monday, November 10 last, the brand new Boeing 737-700 received FAA certification. The 737-700 was launched in November 1993 on the strength of Southwest Airlines’ order for 63 Airplanes. Changes from the current-production 737s include a new larger wing, higher cruise speed, more range, and new engines with improvements in noise, fuel burn and thrust.

The 737 is based on a key philosophy focusing on delivering more value to airlines in the form of reliability, simplicity and reduced operating and maintenance costs. In addition, the new 737-700models enjoys crew commonality with today’s 737.

Like today’s 737, these new family members are offered in three sizes, ranging from 108 to 189 seats. The 737-700 is equivalent in size to the current 737-300, at 128 to 149 seats.

Modifications to the new 737-700 airplane’s wing increases the chord (width) and span (length), which increases fuel capacity and improves fuel efficiency, both of which increase range. On each wing the chord increases by about 20 inches (50 cm) and the total span by almost 18 feet (5 m). The total wing area is increased by 25 percent to 1,340 square feet (125 square meters), providing 30 percent more fuel capacity for a total of 6,878 U.S. gallons (26,136 L).

The range is approximately 3,000 nautical miles (3,454 statute miles or 4,847 km), an increase of up to 900 nautical miles over current-production 737s. That will allow U.S. transcontinental flights and increased 737 route capability throughout the world.

Modifications to the wing airfoil will provide an economical cruise speed of 0.79 Mach (530 mph), compared to 0.745 Mach for today’s 737, with sprint capability of 0.82 Mach. This speed capability makes these 737s a good replacement for 727s being retired. The aircraft will be able to cruise up to a maximum altitude of 41,000 feet, compared to 37,000 feet for the current 737 and 39,000 for the A320.

The 737-700 model is powered by new CFM56-7 engines produced by CFM International, a joint venture of General Electric of the United States and SNECMA of France. The engines will provide the ability to meet community noise restrictions well below Stage 3 levels. These new engines also offer lower fuel burn and lower engine maintenance costs. The CFM56-7 has a 10 percent higher thrust capability than the CFM56-3C engines powering today’s 737. To take additional advantage of the engine’s increased thrust, the new 737 models’ vertical fin and horizontal stabilizer are enlarged.

A basic requirement for the 737-700 model is maintaining crew commonality with the flight deck of over 1,800 current generation 737s that have already been ordered. For example, installing the new Flight Deck Common Display System increases crew commonality by incorporating programmable liquid-crystal displays.

Interview with Mr. Boubby Grin

By: René Graafland & Alex Klein

Mr. Grin, who as been actively involved with Aerius from the beginning, recently joined the Advisory Board. This, and the fact that Mr. Grin has a very interesting and responsible job at KLM-Cargo, were good reasons for us to interview him. Following the report of this interview that lasted for three and a half hours.

Name: Boubby Grin
Occupation: Director Strategy and Governance KLM Cargo
Education: HBS-B, two years of economics and several courses through KLM
Newspapers: Volkskrant and Financial Times
Magazine: Just about any work-related trade journal
Radio: Popular music and Jazz
TV: Hardly ever
Last book: ‘Nostromo’ by Joseph Conrad
Sports: Bicycling, cross-country skiing
Food: Indonesian
You can wake me for: Rather not
City: London
Country: France
Holiday: We enjoy going to our cottage in France
Best/worst flight: I don’t fly that much
Best airport: I like Stansted

Are you fascinated by aviation?

Although my family does not have a strong history in aviation, it is certainly not unknown to me. My father flew in the Dutch East Indies for a short while after World War II. We also went to many air shows. My work in aviation was not predestined, though. The fact that I was stationed in the air force when I served my term was all right, although not what I explicitly wished for. I was stationed at air traffic control, where I found out that there was little to do for a serving officer, because this job was mostly claimed by professionals. After asking for an education in which a serving officer could gain some experience, I ended up with the guided missiles. This still has to do with aviation, namely aerodynamics- and propulsionsystems. Serving here meant staying longer, though, to make up for lost time.

How did you get to work for KLM?

I sent out application forms to the standard companies, such as Shell, Unilever and KLM. My neighbour, who said cargo would become a booming business, advised me to show special interest in cargo at KLM, which I did. They were delighted with my dedication for strategic marketing for Cargo. I came to work with KLM at the Marketing division (1969), a big unsegmented division, marketing all KLM activities and there I was posted at the cargo account, primarily with the task to make commercial analyses.

In what year did KLM-Cargo lift off?

In 1969 there was no real Cargo-division at KLM, only the marketing part and some operational services, although air cargo was already in the KLM services since the 1920’s. Before WW II there was a strong rise in cargo operations, which collapsed during the war. Although Plesman and his associates firmly took up operations after the war, it was only in the early 1970’s that a real emphasis was placed on cargo, with its own parameters and economic drivers.

Yet KLM combines passengers and cargo in one plane?

At KLM passengers and cargo are combined. It does give problems however. For example, scheduling becomes more complex, often serving two different markets – a day market for most passengers and an afternoon c.q. night market for cargo – with one means of production. KLM wants to keep using this so called combi-concept, because the benefits still outweigh the organizational difficulties.

KLM does so unlike some chartered cargo carriers?

Yes, they are in a different market. KLM differentiates in functionality, we belong to a group of air networkers working with the hub and spoke system, but there are also many carriers working as air operators, especially at the cargo side. These carriers only produce a flight service when asked for and thus they avoid the organizational complexity associated with the combi-concept.

Were there any all-cargo carriers when KLM started its cargo operations, considering cargo wasn’t recognized as a separate market then?

Yes, when KLM started with cargo, all-cargo carriers already existed. There are two things we have to concentrate on. The fact that passengers and cargo (including mail) are different categories with different cargo characteristics, which are carried in one plane. There are two ways to deal with these differences, either you combine both categories in one plane and deal with the extra complexity; the economical advantage being lower costs per unit, or you can choose for two different fleets: the complexity problem is set aside, though economically this may have the disadvantage of higher costs per unit, simply because there is less opportunity to optimize the plane’s load. KLM chose to take the organizational disadvantages and started using the combi-concept, and thus chose for some problem-solving operations.

Knowledge is needed for this kind of operations.

True, we deliberately chose path this back in the late sixties, when the Boeing 747 was introduced, under guidance of our former CEO, Mr Pieter Bouw. Because of the 747s enormous size, combining passengers with cargo became an interesting option: The basis for the combi concept was laid. This concept does not only mean you fly Combi-aircraft, but the concept actually means to combine the passengers and cargo productions in one transport method: Even a full-passenger 747, with 400-450 seats, carries a cargo load of about 15 to 25 tonnes. In principle, we put cargo on all of our planes.

How many hours a day are they operational?

That very much depends on where they are being deployed. Wide bodies are in use for approximately 16 to 17 hours a day, not counting overhaul-time. They must fly to make money.

Isn’t that another advantage of the Combi concept, with the night ban on Schiphol? That you can move a lot of cargo during the daytime?

For the combis the night ban does not pose a real problem. Thinking of the huge pressure on Schiphol and therefore also on us, we managed to resolve this with relatively minor adaptations to the schedule. Other carriers that chose to operate in night production, often with noisier planes, are confronted more with this issue than we are.

How about the carriers that use the Quick Change concept, such as Lufthansa?

KLM also used this in the seventies, calling it the Rapid Change concept, but quit using it, because we want planes to fly on quickly. It can happen that external factors, like ATC, can delay the operation. Although the change in the aeroplane goes very fast it must be done twice a day, which could further frustrate operations. Besides that, the side-panels are not taken out of the plane, when it is shipping cargo. During these operations they have no importance and although measures are taken to prevent damage, it can happen that the cargo on a pallet sticks out and damages the interior panelling. During passenger operations the damages would leave a bad impression. Taking these disadvantages into account, KLM chose to discontinue her quick change operations, even though it has its charms.

What kind of market is there for the 737 and DC-9 sized planes?

A continental market. As cargo is becoming a real business, and much more a pipeline business as opposed to the passenger business, which has more point to point travel, it seems apparent that having a full grown continental hub and spoke network is at least as important as having intercontinental connections.

So these smaller planes can compete with ground transport?

Not with all ground transport, but gradually the increasing road congestion is becoming a bigger problem, think about France and the Alp-countries. The performance of railroad traffic is not improving. There are several infrastructural restrictions in the flow of cargo to our hinterland, that causes problems for some sorts of cargo. Then KLM decided to reintroduce what we had discontinued before – with pain in our hearts – namely European cargo aircraft. Though at the time it seemed they caused economical losses, strategically they are very important, otherwise you retreat from a large part of Europe, and lock yourself up in North-western Europe, where competition is very fierce. There are several ways to try and deal with this problem and we decided to fight it this way…

What about the smaller regional airports and cargo, like Maastricht Aachen Airport?

MAA has always been important for cargo and I hope they can keep that position. A certain degree of proximity to the market, even in a small country like The Netherlands, is desirable. But let’s not discriminate: The same holds for Rotterdam, Eindhoven, Twente and hopefully Eelde. I hope they remain available for cargo operations. It also gives the opportunity to divert some cargo activities.

Also at night?

Also at night, given that MAA and the other fields are not confronted with the same threat as Schiphol. But I can not foresee that, a lot of thinking needs to be done about what we decide for the future, also considering a possible Second National Airport.

Where would you like to have a Second National Airport?

Speaking only for cargo, our choice for a second airport would be abroad. We then place our operations closer to the market, not just a couple of kilometres away. That would be in accordance with our sub-hub strategy. At present our subhubs are Vienna, Skasca, Lyon, Manchester, Zaragoza, Bergamo. Some of them could became a second Cargo-Hub.

But they don’t have the advantage of a sea and airport combination, whereas Ijmuiden, for example, would have?

For KLM cargo this is not a decisive argument. For the Netherlands it is an argument of having a mainport at sea and one for aviation. It is a factor for the establishment of companies, not for the logistics provider.

In some magazines I read about the IATA plan ‘Cargo 2000.’ I understood KLM raised some questions concerning the contents of it. Doesn’t the plan have to do with Electronic Data Interchange?

That is the objective of the group. It is a collaboration of a group of airline companies, Cargo Media, and a group of forwarders, Cargo Lift, both of which were separately studying the possibilities of EDI application. Those two groups decided to co-operate, and initiated Cargo 2000. Normally, we would have joined, but the Memorandum of Understanding raised some critical questions. Although the improvement of the customer service level is one of its main aims, customers themselves were, and still are, excluded from membership. KLM Cargo has been customer-driven for some years now, and we believe that the only way to make it work, is to have customers participate. Besides, they are not an IATA group, but an IATA interest group, showing that IATA hasn’t fully committed itself either.

We talked about the knowledge needed for the Combi-concept. Just now we talked about the necessity of new strategic ways of thinking. What kind of students are you looking for in the next few years to stimulate the logistics industry, and KLM Cargo in the Netherlands? What do you look for in a student, or his field of study?

Well, in connection with what I just mentioned with Cargo 2000: I cannot so much describe it in terms of the curriculum one should follow, but I would strongly plea that – this industry being so introvert and having process-orientated features – we should open up to the market. I would suggest that if someone would write down a fully developed logistic curriculum in which the Netherlands could regain its position in logistics and distribution in the world, it would also contain subjects like International Law and Languages. We must find our way back to the market again, find out where we stand and where we want to be. For a while we have really been looking to the inside and at some point we efficiently started producing what we thought the customer wanted. Though we found some really neat solutions, we still realized at some point, that we had withdrawn ourselves too long and when we returned to the market we were lagging behind. Our clients had moved ahead: In their interactions with their own customers, they had already innovated the services they wanted us to perform. They are positioned in a cut-throat logistic market with concepts like just-in-time delivery and effective consumer response. Things are happening at the customer side of the market, the time of business re-engineering is gone by. Therefore we are looking for people who can sense the pulse of the market, instead of people who have the tendency to look inside, to the process.

This means that KLM must re-educate its current employees?

We do that constantly. KLM changed its organization from a functional pyramidal organization to a full-unit structure. We now have seven Business Units, all responsible for their own part in the operations and commerce, the so-called shop-factory model. One of their responsibilities is updating their employees so that they can find and keep their place in the world and in the market.

So the units have become internal customers of each other. Does this give any problems?

No, hopefully not. There is a small and simple package of ‘Trading Rules,’ that regulates the internal trade and relations between the units. We hope that we haven’t made any mistakes in these rules and some well-established consultancy firms have checked them, and found no mistakes whatsoever.

Do these rules apply for KLM as a whole?

No, just KLM Cargo. KLM has two large divisions, namely Passage and Cargo and within the Cargo division we chose to leave behind our traditional functional organization and switched over to a flat business unit structure. The Passage division still works with a functional organization.

It is odd that in one and the same company, despite the fact that it consists of two divisions, it works with different organizational structures? Then again, it may better apply to their activities?

Clearly it does, although I cannot speak for the Passage division, it does seem that way. Of course it is an extra task, but we are used to these complex tasks, just think of the combi-concept. This is similar to the combi-concept, having two divisions in one company in which one division chooses another organizational structure than the second. Still at the top it must be kept under control.

And all the same, the passengers are still put together with the cargo in the same plane?

Yes, but let me make this clear, an aeroplane doesn’t mean anything to us, we put cargo as easily on a boat or in a truck. We don’t own any aeroplanes nor will we ever. Ownership lies with KLM. As a matter of fact: Since October 1st, KLM Cargo has officially become a forwarder.

And no longer an airliner?

Well, we are a division of an airline company, but then again, catering is also a division and there they bake bread. We are freight people, specialized in accepting cargo and matching it with capacity. As it happens we are part of a company that has quite some capacity, making the match fairly easy and transparent. But looking at it functionally, we work more as a forwarder than as a carrier.

We don’t mind if people still see us as KLM, the airliner, but looking closely, we are more of a handling company, just like Aeroground and Avio Presto, and a forwarder.

I wonder, with my legal background: Do cargo operations have a code-sharing construction similar to that of passenger transport?

With your legal background, you should know that in the Warsaw Convention, basically the Bible for Aviation, a very important freedom has been kept for freight: the freedom of routing. For passenger transport such a freedom does not exist, making code-sharing agreements an interesting alternative.

Bilateral treaties create the opportunity to carry passengers between two states. The sixth freedom enables you to fly people from a third state to your state, and then carry them to the bilateral partner. When this is done with the same airline, this is called internal code-sharing. External code sharing would be if one part of the journey is done by a carrier other than your own.

This has given all kinds of aviation-related political difficulties, because in principle no freedom of routing exists for passengers. But it does for cargo. So for the cargo side of operations code-sharing is not so interesting.

It is however interesting when constructing networks out of single legs. If, for example, you would carry a cargo load from Northern Italy to Schiphol and from there on you have a large amount of carriers going into the world, this makes it possible to have transportation from Northern Italy to the rest of the world without causing problems in the bilateral agreements, simply because there is a freedom of routing.

The freedom was actually always there, but because cargo operations always played the supporting role in the whole flying operation, it never had the possibility to develop. The more one looks to the Cargo side of the operations, it turns out that this freedom exists and we can use it. In Passenger operations we are also looking for this freedom and this leads to alliances that, by way of code-sharing tie together networks. With cargo operations we could have done it earlier, but then again, at the cargo side it isn’t as apparent as in code-sharing with passengers. As a passenger you should always wonder if you aren’t cheated, by being flown by a lower quality carrier.

We had research done for the manifest “Give Cargo some Air” (Lucht voor Vracht), and it appeared that 23 to 25% of Dutch cargo was shipped through foreign airports. So cargo networking is already actively practised.Wherein then lies the difference between the scheduled and the chartered carriers?

There is a judicial differentiation to be made between scheduled, bilateral flights and the so called file and fly regime. For the latter permission is always needed from the destination airport for every flight. Many western and far eastern countries give you almost immediate permission, but still the request has to be made. Though charters, Cargolux and Martinair, for example, have built extensive networks between many countries. Despite the theoretical difference, in practice little differentiation is made. Business travellers book a flight just as easily with Martinair as with KLM.

There is a tendency that after 40 to 50 years differences in a sector start to fade. When this happens to a business, you have to be cautious.

Most cargo air transport services are offered by forwarders, not by airliners. The client does not care how the forwarder does his job, as long as his cargo is delivered is good fashion. The forwarder does so on his own account and liability.

Airports of the World: Manchester Airport

Manchester Airport now operates two terminals. Both terminals are served by a dedicated spur from Junction 5 off the M56, and are clearly signposted from all main access roads. Each terminal has a range of shops, a choice of restaurants and licensed bars, with banking and foreign exchange facilities available in both. In October 1996 a new Skylink was opened which links Terminal 1 and Terminal 2. It also provides a link to the Airport’s rail station. The Skylink with moving walkways connects Terminal 2 with Terminal 1 International and Terminal 1 Domestic via the Rail Station.

Manchester Airport has been growing rapidly over the past few years. Nowadays 15 Million passengers use Manchester Airport each year. Manchester Airport offers services to mayor and regional destinations all over the UK and the European Continent. Direct intercontinental services are available as well to destinations in the USA, Far East (Singapore and Hong Kong), and Africa. Manchester is conveniently located in the UK, providing good transfer connections to domestic destinations in the UK.

Passenger Services
Manchester Airport offers its passengers an extensive array of shopping and eating facilities. There are around 40 shops and more than 20 bars and restaurants on the airport premises. Banks, car rental and four hotels are available as well.

All check-in halls are located on the upper level of each terminal and are clearly signposted from the approach roads. Airtours International have their own dedicated check-in hall which is situated on the lower level of Terminal 1 International. It is signposted from the approach roads. For passengers checking-in for Airtours International flights there is a drop off area at the entrance.

Major tour operators are represented in the check-in halls in Terminal 1 International and Terminal 2, for late collection of tickets, assistance with check-in and general enquiries.

All UK and Northern Ireland flights departing from Terminal 1 Domestic will be required to pass through a security search and hand baggage will be x-rayed. The passenger will not be required to present his passport. International passenger will be required to present their passport to be examined by HM Immigration Officials once they have been through security.

Visitors at Manchester Airport
Manchester Airport offers many services for visitors as well. Aviation enthusiasts can watch plane activities from the spectators terrace, visit the Aviation Shop or take a guided tour.

Located at Terminal 1 Spectator Terrace and at the Aviation Viewing Park, the Aviation Shop offers everything from aircraft radios, books, souvenirs and models, to the Airport’s official monthly guide, ‘Flight Check’. The Aviation Shops are operated by the Aviation Society.

The Aviation Viewing Park is open every day of the year (excluding Christmas Day) from 0830 till dusk. There is plenty of room for cars with over 300 parking spaces, including parking for the disabled, all offering great views of the aircraft without even the leaving the car. For coach parties there are four spaces available. There is a charge of £1.00 per vehicle weekdays and £2.00 weekends and bank holidays.

Trained tour guides provide information on many aspects of the aviation and travel industry. The Tour Centre, located on the Terminal 1 Spectator terrace, holds displays from airlines, specialist aviation videos, and provides a good view of the Airport. Tours are available for educational bodies (aged 4 and upward) or public groups, and can be booked directly through the Tour Centre.


Manchester Airport’s mission is “to be the best world airport” The environment core value is to be:- “a world leader in environmental excellence operating a sustainable business”

The number of people wanting to use Manchester Airport is increasing and, by 2005, is expected to reach 30 million a year. While bringing many benefits to the region, this growth will affect the environment. The future success is linked to how well the airport is able to control that effect. To make sure they do this correctly, they have set up an environmental department to advise the company on environmental control, planning, company policy and to monitor progress. in this vital area.

In 1989 the airport reviewed its environmental policies and initiatives and talked to local residents to find out how much of an effect it have on their lives. The booklet “Towards a Better Environment” was the first comprehensive environmental policy and was widely acclaimed as an example for others to follow. It is known that to support the regional economy into the next century, the airport need to further develop its environment policies into a well thought out long-term environment plan. This should cover the key issues and concerns and be tied into our other corporate policies and plans. It should be a document which everyone believes in and which clearly and publicly announces its commitment, which is produced after talking with:

  • representatives of local communities, including the Manchester Airport Consultative Committee (MACC)
  • the customers (airlines and tenants);
  • other organisations in the aviation industry;
  • environmental experts;
  • and local authorities

Sustainability means meeting today’s needs while making sure future generations are able to satisfy their own needs. The Aviation demand in Europe is rapidly growing and this is offering opportunities for increased benefits. If the airport is to capitalise on these opportunities it must accept the responsibilities that come with these opportunities.

Achieving sustainability means that the company has to understand how the world is changing. The Airport Company must then ensure that its development and operation are in step with its changing commercial, social, political and environmental situation.

Manchester Airport PLC has an in house Environment Department, staffed by experts in environmental management. However all staff from the shop floor to Executive Directors, have specific environmental targets and responsibilities. The airport also recognise that it is the surrounding communities that are most affected by its operation and development.

Second Runway

On 15 January 1997, the UK Government approved the development of a £172 million second runway at Manchester Airport. This landmark development is needed to meet the projected air traffic demand in the North of England, generate almost 50,000 new jobs, and provide a massive boost to the regional economy.

The second runway will be 3,050 metres long and 390 metres to the south of the existing runway. There would be a 1,850 metre stagger between runway ends and aircraft would use one runway for departures, the other for arrivals. The new runway would not be used at night. The runway would cross the Wilmslow – Altrincham (A538) Road and the River Bollin, which will be diverted through a large tunnel.

Why a second runway is needed?

Manchester Airport is one of the success stories in the North of Britain. It is the UK’s third largest airport, and in terms of international traffic, one of the world’s top 20. Over the past 10 years the Airport has grown rapidly from 4 million passengers per year in 1980 to almost 15 million in 1996.

The growth in air travel is expected to continue. The latest forecasts predict that by the year 2005, some 30 million passengers per year will be using Manchester Airport.

To handle the expected traffic growth, a second runway is needed. Even now, at busy periods, the single runway is operating at its maximum capacity. Without a second runway, delays and congestion would increase to such a point, that new airlines wanting to serve Manchester are likely to be turned away, denying passengers the opportunity to fly from their own local airport.

Economic Benefits

The growth of the Airport has been one of the success stories in the health of the local and regional economy. Many thousands of jobs already depend on Manchester Airport. Over 15,000 people are employed on the site, with many thousands more away from the Airport in related businesses.

The development of Manchester Airport offers one of the greatest potential sources of new job creation in the North West. With a second runway it is likely that some 50,000 new jobs would be created. The decision to grant permission for the new runway is the most important step forward for the Region in decades – important for commerce, important for travel and tourism and important for local and regional employment prospects.

A Major Construction Boost for the Region

It is vital that the new runway is available for use as soon as possible to provide additional capacity for airlines and their passengers. The construction of the second runway will be a major civil engineering and environmental project; one of the largest in the North West. The works are expected to take some three years to complete.

The second runway would be 3,050 metres long, parallel and 390 metres to the south of the existing runway. There would be a 1,850 metre stagger between the runway ends, and aircraft would usually use the new runway for departures and the existing runway for arrivals.

The work will require a significant volume of material to be imported, mainly stone from the Peak District. The Airport Company hope to be able to carry at least 70% of this material by rail. This will remove over 185,000 potential lorry trips from the local roads, replaced by 3 trains a day.

Community Guarantees

The Second Runway proposal has been the subject of a detailed and comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment. Careful consideration has been paid to the environmental impact of the scheme and the effect of the development on the Airport’s neighbours. A far reaching environmental mitigation package has been drawn up and legally binding guarantees have been agreed with local communities.

Long term measures will be put in place to limit the noise impact of the Airport operation. Over the last ten years, with the switch to modern quieter aircraft, there have been significant decreases in noise levels around the Airport, despite the increases in air traffic. This will continue and the Airport has made a legally binding guarantee that measured noise levels upto 2011 will be no worse than they were in 1992.

Over half of the runway site is already within the existing perimeter of the Airport. Of the new land outside the Airport, over half of it has been set aside for environmental works. The second runway will inevitably impact on the local landscape, however the scheme includes an extensive programme of environmental improvement measures.

Expert ecologists have worked closely with the project engineers to conserve habitats where possible and minimise intrusion into the most valuable areas. It is proposed to move some of the most valuable habitats and restore ecologically important sites.

Large areas of new woodland will be planted, the equivalent of 50 football pitches, this is almost six times the area that would be lost. Some existing ponds would be lost, although for each one, at least two new ponds will be created. This means that over 90 new or restored ponds form part of the second runway scheme.

Measures will also be put in place to protect birds and animals affected by the runway construction. New habitats will be created, and the animal themselves will be sensitively moved away from the construction area.

Ground transport – vital for easy access

The success of any airport depends on the quality of links to it. A variety of measures are being put in place to increase the use of public transport. The rail link is already a great success, the extension of the Metrolink light rail system and the expansion of the rail network are key priorities.

The Public Inquiry – the Inspector’s conclusions

The Public Inquiry into the Second Runway ran from June 1994 to March 1995 and lasted some 101 days. This was one of the largest Public Inquiries to be held in the North West. The Inspector’s Report and the Secretaries of State’s decision that permission for the project be granted, were published on the 15th January 1997.

The Inspector concluded “Manchester Airport is a vitally important asset for the Region” and that the beneficial effect of the airport would be “huge.

In considering the package of environmental measures, the Inspector judged; “the impressive, wide ranging and comprehensive S106 Agreement would secure substantial levels of mitigation to reduce the harmful effects as low as reasonably practicable….and the proposals would contribute, so far as possible, to the objective of ensuring that development and growth are sustainable.”

Taking account of the benefits as well as the environmental impact, the Inspector’s final conclusion was that the case for planning permission was, in his own words, “overwhelming”.

Thank You for Flying

By: Mark van Harlingen

Flying is an amazing thing. We are sure you agree with that. However there are many different ways of flying. In this column the emphasis will be on the great diversity in service offered by airlines throughout the world. We assume all our readers are airline fanatics and some of you have already had the opportunity to fly quite some miles. Therefore, together we form an interesting group of critics when it comes to airlines and service.

This column appears in Aerlines on a regular base and gives all you critics out there the chance to share your experiences, good and bad, while flying any airline in the world, with all Aerius-members.

The editors would like to stress that the given opinion is a personal one.

KE 914 Amsterdam – Seoul (14 July)
KE 1161 Seoul – Pusan (15 July)
KE 1011 Pusan – Cheju-do island (26 July)
KE 1014 Cheju-do island – Pusan (28 July)
KE 1142 Pusan – Seoul (03 August)
KE 913 Seoul – Amsterdam (04 August)

Class: Economy

Total mileage according to Skypass (FFP): 12900

Most adopted children want to know more about their roots and biological parents. Well, I’m one of them. I was adopted in 1977 at the age of 3 by a Dutch family. Since 1986 I have contact with my biological mother in Korea and we correspond with each other on a regular base. This summer was a good moment for me to visit her (for the first time in 20 years). I was anxious to know how I ended up being adopted and how my family in Korea lived.

There are several options to get to Korea. All major European carriers fly to Seoul, but because I had to take a connecting flight from Seoul to Pusan, Korean Air was the best (and the cheapest) option. The connecting flight Seoul-Pusan cost me only 25 guilders more. My flight departed on Monday 14 July at about 23.55 hrs. At the check-in I collected my Skypass miles (Korean Air FFP). Your miles never expire which is a big advantage for the not so frequent flyer like me. I said goodbye to my parents and headed for the terminal. At the arrival information was giving my flight was delayed for an hour. Due to this delay I could face some problems with my connecting flight at Seoul Kimpo. Then there was a gate change. Instead of concourse G4 the plane arrived at concourse F3. Finally at 0.10 hrs a big light blue Boeing 747-400 arrived. At the side of the plane big letters reminded me for the 2002 World Cup Soccer hosted by both Korea and Japan. Finally at 0.50 hrs we departed. The plane was only filled for about 50 percent and almost all of the passengers were Korean. No Dutch or English newspapers were offered (only Korean newspapers) which was a little disappointment. Soon after take off I started to browse through the inflight magazines ‘Morning Calm’ and ‘SkyShop’.

Korean Air offered a wide selection of music channels. Two movies and many features would be played during the flight. After about an hour the first meal was served by very good looking flight attendances. When the ‘fasten seatbelt’ sign was turned off the flight attendances took off their jackets of their uniform and they looked more informal. I choose pulgogi, sliced beef in soy sauce (probably most famous dish outside Korea), and it tasted good. Wine and other beverages (except for beer) were served in little plastic cups what really annoyed me because the cups were quite small and I had to ask several times for more. After dinner the lights were dimmed and a movie (Metro with Eddy Murphy) started. Unfortunately I missed all the movies because it was already 3.00 AM and I fell asleep. When I awoke time of arrival was within three hours. The weather was very cloudy and I couldn’t see the landscape below. Then the trolley with the SkyShop, tax-free shopping, was passing through the aisle. They sold many Korean Air merchandise items. Perfumes were quite limited in number. After an eleven hour flight I finally landed at Seoul Kimpo. I had to pick up my suitcase and check in for my next flight. I forgot to ask my travel agent to send me a map of Kimpo airport so I had no idea where to go. When I walked to the information desk I met my brother (he works in Seoul) who brought me by bus to the Domestic Terminal. In retrospect quite a strange meeting, because I didn’t expect him at all. An Airbus 300-600 brought me from Seoul to Pusan. The flight took only one hour and during the flight non-alcoholic drinks were served. Newspapers were (again) only in Korean language, which gave me the impression that Korean Air is mainly focused on their domestic customers. After a short flight I finally landed at my destination, Pusan. Pusan is the second biggest city in Korea with over 4 million inhabitants and in possession of a big harbour. The airport was relatively small for a city this size. After I claimed my baggage I was welcomed by almost my whole Korean family from my mother’s side. It was a quite emotional reunion and I was a little overwhelmed by so much attention.

After spending two weeks with my family they decided I had to visit Cheju-do island. Koreans call it their own Hawaii and many Korean newlyweds spend their honeymoon on the island. My family had arranged a bus tour, hotel and a return ticket Pusan-Cheju for a cousin and I. The flight was a domestic flight drill like the Seoul-Pusan flight. After takeoff the stewardesses served coffee, tea and juice. Newspapers were only in Korean. The plane flew at an altitude of approximately 15.000 feet so I could take a good look at the coastline of the Korean peninsula. I noticed that both in Pusan and Cheju the runways and aprons were very bumpy. Taxiing to the gates and runways was almost like a themepark attraction.

On the 2nd of August I flew together with my mother and brother back to Seoul for a one day sightseeing. Thunderstorms and bad weather made the trip a turbulent one.

Monday the 3rd of August, check-in at Kimpo at 8 o’clock AM. I noticed that Kimpo had a three separate terminal system, two international terminals (one for Korean carriers and one for other international carriers) and one domestic terminal. It was really crowded in the terminal like an ant-hill. At the walls of the terminal you could see the plans for ‘Inchon International Airport’, a new airport which will be built in the sea with a maximum capacity of 120 million passengers annually after the entire project is finished.

Gladly the farewell to my mother was not too emotional, but more a goodbye. We will see each other again. At the gate a Boeing 777 (my favourite plane) was waiting. I was quite surprised because normally Korean Air would put on a 747 on this route. It was probably the first long haul flight for this plane because I missed the inflight magazines (only a air sickness bag and a safetycard were present). This time the plane was quite full and no available windowseat this time. A lot of short features were played while serving drinks. The quality of the audio was very good, especially the sound by the features and movie. Diner was a real Korean style dish. A bowl with rice and a little plate with beef and vegetables which I had to mix together with hot sauce. Of course there were chopsticks but also cutlery for people like me who gets stiff fingers after using chopsticks for more then 5 minutes. After lunch a movie, Vulcano with Tommy Lee Jones (NOT recommendable), was played. In my aisle there was a ‘womens only’ lavatory, which made the line for the other lavatory even longer. So going to the toilet was almost like going on an expedition. After more than 11 hours and a pretty smooth flight we finally landed at Schiphol Airport at about 15.00 hours.

In conclusion I’m glad I made this trip. I know more about my roots, culture and family in Korea and many unanswered questions are solved now. Korean Air was a good airline for a fair price and gave an extra cultural touch to my trip.

Editor's Letter Issue 13

This is the first Issue of Aerlines made by our newly inaugurated editors team. I welcome René Graafland, Mark van Harlingen, Edwin Hengstmengel, Alex Klein and Ivanka Pourier as our new regular contributors. I am sure that they will contribute substantially to your reading pleasure. Working together in a team is much fun and very efficient. As we keep an eye on each other, positive criticism, of course benefits the quality of our magazine.

Two of our new members had the opportunity to interview Mr. Boubby Grin of KLM Cargo. From what I understood, this was a truly exiting interview. It is a pity I could not attend this interview myself. However, I am happy that we can present you a report of this conversation Alex Klein and René Graafland held with Mr. Grin, who recently joined the distinguished Advisory Board.

Further, I invite you to join us in a series about Airport Privatization, a very actual topic discussed by Edwin Hengstmengel. Airports of the World offers you a brief tour around Manchester Airport, that recently has been granted permission to build a second runway.

Interested in Asian Aviation? Hans Adriaanse had the chance to fly to the Far East and to explore the world of Asian civil aviation. Sit back and join him in his journey to Asia. More on Asian aviation can be read in Mark van Harlingen’s ‘Thank you for flying Korean Air’.

Last but not least, I would like to extend an invitation for all of you, to please, keep the pens rolling and send in your personal contribution to Aerlines. I count on you in making Aerlines an even better and more varied magazine. Never mind your English grammar; we will take care of that!

I wish you much reading pleasure.

Best Regards,

Hubert Croes
General Editor Aerlines

The Graduate: Remco Voogt

The Graduate

1.    Name: Remco Voogt.

2.    Date of Birth: 03 June 1966

3.    Study: Law, University of Amsterdam, (thesis at the University of Leiden).

4.    Graduation date: 31 July 1996.

5.    Thesis: The Legal Role of Slots in Civil Aviation.

6.    Summary of thesis: More and more airports find themselves in a situation in which aircarriers want to schedule more flights than the airport can handle (for whatever reason). In my thesis I looked at those congested airports with infrastructural problems, i.e. not enough runwayspace. The days where the captain only had to announce his arrival for him to be allowed to land seem to be gone. The high demand for slots calls for a system which allocates the existing infrastructure to the number of flights on the basis of certain criteria. These criteria can vary from a system of first come first serve, a buy and sell-system or anything in between. However a choice for certain criteria for slotallocation on a operational level requires a study of the economical and legal ramifications of the options available. After a servay of the existing rules and regulations with regards to slotallocation both in the US and in the EC, I looked at some legal aspects which play a important role in (the implementation of) a slotallocationsystem such as ownership and other rights pertaining to slots. Giving a slot to someone entails taking it away from someone else. Are there legal grounds for a carrier to claim damages if slots are taken away? Dividing slots amongst applicants also means in effect determining who flies and who doesn’t and therefor who makes money and who doesn’t. In short the choice of slotallocationsystem will determine the future of civil aviation and needs a lot more in-depth study than is being done at the moment.

7.    Your relationship with Aerius: I made an effort to attend as many functions as possible, (not only because of the cheap beer). I went on studytrips to London and Berlin and helped organise the one to Florida. I was also a member of the conference committee which organised the Conference on Civil Aviation in the Modern World.

8.    Your internship: Never did one, (aren’t too many around for lawstudents) but if you get the chance go for it.

9.    Current employer: AA Interfinance B.V. (holding, 100% owned by ABN/Amro, with several banks operating in the consumer finance market.).

10.    Since: 26th of May as a temp, and since 1st of September as employee of ABN/Amro.

11.    Function: With two (lady) corporate lawyers we make up the legal department.

12.    Job contents: My job is to make sure that al the legal entities within the holding can operate within the law, (everything covered by corporate law from publishing yearly figures to various licences), make sure we follow the rules and regulations set by the law covering personal financing (Wet op het Consumentenkrediet), co-ordinate legal aspects of fraudinvestigation and last but not least give legal advise to anyone within the holding.

13.    Future (job) wishes: Besides World Peace a pay check large enough so that I can enjoy a beer with friends and travel the earth for the many day’s off you get working for thé Bank. On the other hand, I would also like to work 60 to 70 hours a week for a lawfirm handling any case involving an airline.

14.    Apllication experiences: HANG IN THERE is the main thing; it will happen one fine day. If you feel bad about yourself it shows. Also your letter is your first introduction, get (professional) help (e.g. former students still involved with Aerius) if you get too many negative responses to your letters.

15.    Golden Rule for application: Have an answer prepared for those questions which they always ask and be yourself in answering questions you haven’t prepared for and make sure you tell them everything you think they ought to know about you (you only get one shot!!).

President's Speech Issue 13

This is it! For over 40 months Aerius has been on my mind daily, but now it is time to say goodbye. This may appear a bit dramatically, but that is definitely not the case. I’m stepping down with the best memories and the confidence that I’ll be invited for the 25-year-anniversary of Aerius (that’s in 22 years’ time, hmm), just because I know Aerius will still be alive and kicking. These last three years did not only rule out my best expectations of what was possible with this student organization, but also gave me the most learningful period of my life so far. Back in 1994 I expected a certain necessity for its presence, but the current statistics make me very proud to have been the leader of the pack who gave Aerius a position within the Dutch aviation related world.

This period impressed me that much because of, amongst others, the following highlights and achievements of Aerius:

* Creating a network of over 190 student members and more than 250 business contacts.
* A lot of own developed activities like StagAerius (the internship-programme which created over 54 internships
so far), theme days (I’ll never forget the visits to Fokker Aircraft, the Traffic Tower at Schiphol, the flight with
the Dutch Airforce to Eindhoven Airport, a.o.), and the lectures (even with a television appearance (for just a
couple of seconds, but still…)).
* The nine-month period as student-assistant of Prof. Jaap de Wit.
* The five studytrips I participated in: Boston, Brussels, Berlin, London and Florida.
* The three month internship period in the Caribbean for TMI.
* A total number of eight other trips abroad.
* The lasting friendships with many of the (former) board members.
* The creation of the Aerius Library.
* Our successful 2-day ‘Conference on Civil Aviation in the Modern World’, in May 1996.
* A respectable number of companies willing to support and sponsor us with all that we do.
* A great back-up team (the Aerius‘ Advisory board) of which, as a founder of Aerius, I have become a member
now as well.
* Not to forget the magazine I’m writing in, the Aerlines. It opened doors and convinced everyone we were taking
things seriously.

I found it all a most successful and learningful trip, but now it is, as I am finalizing my thesis, time to take off for the next scheduled flight, that is into the ‘real world’. I hope to get a bit of tailwind finding an interesting job within the Dutch aviation sector so I can stay in touch with most of you all.

It is pretty hard to thank everyone by name in this column, but there are a few that cannot be unmentioned: Cees van der Mark (our graphic specialist), Ada Kromhout (our general support in all at the Faculty) and Jaap de Wit (who looked after his ‘wild bunch’ with careful eyes and supporting hands). As Aerius became a ‘daytime job’ to me, it also affected the home front. I could always rely on them for a shoulder or a second opinion; Mam (the ‘English lady’ for all of us at Aerius), Dad, my brother René (who keeps the ‘Graafland-dynasty’ alive as he joined the Board recently) and my girl-friend Irma (always there…). Besides them I would like to thank everyone who helped us out, all the business contacts, the members of the Advisory Board and all the board members as well as the committee-members whom I had the privilege to work with.

As I, together with the treasurer Guido Hogen, resign some new faces enter the ring. As Ronald van Neerijnen has now become president (good luck fella…), his position as Vice has been taken by Robert-Paul van Tol. The new treasurer is Ewout Meijer and as I already mentioned, my brother René accepted the position of Internal and External Affairs. I wish all of them the best of luck, and I hope that they will keep up the Aerius spirit as I have done with all my heart and soul for the last three years.

Bye 4 now, but not 4 ever…..

Jeroen A. Graafland

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