Airport of the World: Hamburg Airport

by Jasper Spruit MSc and David Liebert


Airport of the World: Orlando International Airport

Orlando International Airport is the only gateway to the heart of Florida – a world business and vacation destination – with more natural and man-made attractions than anywhere else under the sun. From the moment you arrive, you will notice that Orlando International Airport is one of the most beautiful, sophisticated and environmentally-concerned airports in the nation. It is practically an attraction in itself. Both inside and out, the airport has incorporated the celebrated Florida sunshine and atmosphere into its ultra-modern design. An enclosed elevated passenger shuttle system links the gates to the tri-level main terminal, giving the passengers a view of the incredible Florida environment.

History and Facts

The area where Orlando International Airport is situated once belonged to the McCoy Air Force base, which was closed back in 1974. In 1975 the greater Orlando Aviation Authority was created by a special legislative act. In that same year the deed was received by the City for surplus land for airport facility use. In 1976, the airport that today is one of the airports best-liked by travelers, was born. In that year it received international airport status and was renamed Orlando International Airport.

Airport Statistics

Enplanements Operations
FY2011 : 26609000 572000
FY96 : 11791816 341942
FY95 : 10584116 343609
FY94 : 10453014 344213

Growth in: Enplanements Operations
(%) (%)
FY96-FY2011: 125.7 67.3
FY95-FY96 : 11.4 -.5

In 1978 the construction began on a new terminal which was opened in 1981. The construction of the international concourse started in 1983 and was opened in 1984 complete with U.S. Customs and Immigration Services. The 3rd runway was opened in 1989 followed by the opening of the 3rd airside terminal with 24 gates and 15 commuter aircraft positions in 1990.

According to the Airports Council International, Orlando International Airport was the 4th fastest growing major airport in the U.S. in 1997. The primary cause for the growth is that the Orlando area, home of world-famous attractions such as Walt Disney World and Universal Studios, has become one of the fastest-growing tourist markets in the world. The Disney complex alone draws an estimated 50 million visitors a year and the Orlando area is projected to reach in excess of 60 million visitors per annum by 2000. In turn, this tourist market has led to growth in the convention trade and businesses – including high-tech industries and a rapidly growing film and television production community -which have become secondary contributors to rapid air-traffic growth. The metropolitan Orlando area has been projected as the No. 1 growth region in the nation for the 1996-2001 time period.

With a total of 27,305,149 passengers Orlando International Airport was the 23rd largest airport in the world, and the 16th largest in the U.S., ranked by the number of passengers. IATA’s 1997 Airport Monitor ranked Orlando International Airport as the second best in North America for overall passenger convenience. An example of passenger convenience is the following; the average time it takes international passengers to get from the aircraft through customs, immigration and baggage claim is just 46 minutes.

Even with an annual budget exceeding $200 million, no local tax dollars are used to fund the airport – all funding comes from the airlines, hotel and concessions, parking and ground transportation, rental car companies, Tradeport, and Federal grants. The largest single source of revenue for the airport is car rental. With more than 700,00 visitors per week, Orlando is considered the car-rental capital of the world. Roughly 60% of all domestic visitors and 70% of domestic leisure visitors rent cars.

Orlando International Air-port is the world’s first airport to have a micro-brewery – The Shipyard Brewing Co. – which opened in April 1997. The brewery produces four different types of beer plus a “special of the week”. It also sells brewery-related merchandise and gives tours at no charge. Shipyard beer is offered at the Shipyard Brew Pub, restaurants and bars throughout the airport.

Cargo facilities
As a major cargo center, which handles a huge a-mount of the State’s flowers, plants and nursery stock exports, Orlando Interna-tional Airport has im-pressive facilities for those who have to do business on site. Orlando accounts for approximately 80% of the cargo activity in Central Florida. It is also important to remember that Orlando is ideally located as a gateway between Latin America and Europe or Asia.

Some reasons why one should ship cargo through Orlando International Airport are:

potential to expand to over 1 million square feet of warehouse space;
on-airport, 205 acre Foreign Trade Zone;
onsite U.S. Customs clearance and U.S. Department of Agriculture inspection at the Perishable Center;
Centralized Examination Station;
direct rail access by FEC to major cities in the Southeast adjacent to Tradeport;
connects through the uncongested local road network around the airport;
rapid road access to the nine deep-water ports of Florida.
Airport improvements: MasterPlan 95
Orlando is a busy place and getting busier. In order to double its capacity by 2014, Orlando International Airport started a $240 million con-struction program in 1997 – aimed at improvements to public and employee parking, ground-transportation facili-ties and terminals – as the interim phase of an expansion program. The overall pro-gram, expected to cost around $3.5 billion, was de-veloped under a master plan in 1995 and was approved in 1996. The overall $3.5 billion expansion program is aimed at three “planning horizons” designed to handle growth in stages of 30 million passen-gers, 37.5 million and 55 million.

Phase I
The primary result of the expansion program will be a new South Terminal, duplicating the function but not necessarily the design of the North Terminal. Under Phase I projections, the number of jet gates should increase from 80 to 93, while commuter airline parking positions increase from 19 to 27. The stress capacity will rise from 27 million to 33 million. Cost of Phase I is estimated at around $779 million. All Phase I projects should be completed during 2002 and 2003.

Overview of Airport Expansion Plans:

# of jet gates # of commuter parking positions # of passengers forecast
1997 figures 80 19 25.6 million (1997)
Phase I 93 27 33.0 million (2004)
Phase II 110 34 38.6 million (2005)
Phase III 140 42 55.9 million (2014)

Phase II

By the year 2005, the 37.5 million-passenger level is expected to be reached with a total forecast of 38.6 million. In order to be able to serve this amount of traffic, Orlando International Airport will need 110 jet gates and 34 commuter parking positions.

Phase III
This phase is forecast to be reached between 2013, when 53.8 million passengers are expected, and 2014, with 55.9 million forecast. At that time, 140 jet gates and 42 commuter positions will be needed.

Step by step Orlando International Airport is reaching toward its goal and that is being able to handle the growth in passengers and being able to serve them in the best possible way.

Orlando International Airport will have to keep proving that it is a: world-class airport for a world-class destination

Airport of the World: Aéroports de Montreal Dorval

Aéroports de Montreal
Since August 1st 1992, ADM has been the Local Airport Authority responsible for the management, operation and development of Montreal International Airports – Dorval and Mirabel, through a 60-year lease signed with Transport Canada. ADM is a non-profit organization. The Board of Directors is comprised of eight members, chaired by Mrs Nycol Pageau-Goyette.

AMS’ mission is to exceed guest and business partner expectations by providing airport services designed to render their airports among the most accessible and welcoming in the world; to foster sustained growth for their airports while safeguarding the sound position of the Corporation; and, to contribute to economic development of the Greater Montreal area.

ADM has 580 employees in service. Revenues are close to $120 million annually.

Wholly-Owned Subsidiaries

– Aéroports de Montreal Capital Inc.
– Integrated airport development projects involving finance, operations, investment or construction.
– Aéroports de Montreal International Inc
– Consulting services in airport planning, development, management and operations.

General Information Montreal International Airport – Dorval

Operational area: 1,325 hectares (property and development zone)
Passengers: >6,843,242 passengers in 1997

Start of operations: 1941
Operational area: 1,325 hectares (property and development zone)
Passengers: 6,843,242 passengers in 1997
Aircraft movements: 195,193 movements in 1997
Air cargo: 58,677 metric tons in 1997
Number of employees on the site: Approximately 18,000
Main characteristics:
  • 20 minutes from downtown Montreal.
  • At the heart of a dynamic industrial zone.
  • Air Canada Maintenance Centre and Headquarters, Canadair-Bombardier, Innotech and Cygnus Dorval facilities on site. CAE Electronics and Rolls-Royce facilities nearby
  • Conveniently linked to ground and sea transportation networks
  • The Dorval Terminal

    The Dorval Terminal is housed in an eight-store multi-purpose building whose ground floor and first floor are used to accommodate the flow of passengers.

    Two concourses equipped with boarding rooms extend off either side of the main building. The East concourse is used for domestic flights, while the West concourse serves transborder flights.

    An aeroquay, a modern building equipped with additional boarding rooms is also linked to the terminal by two tunnels with moving sidewalks. The West side of the aeroquay services international flights while the East side services transborder flights. The concourse and aeroquay provide access to 52 gates, 32 of which are equipped with loading bridges.

    The airport has three runways, the longest of which measures 3,353 m. In addition to the passenger processing area (which includes the terminal and boarding rooms), other zones at Dorval include those for general aviation, aircraft maintenance (Air Canada maintenance base), and air cargo.

    The Arrivals level is on the ground floor. The East side accommodates domestic flights while the West side is used for transborder and international flights.

    The Departures level is on the first floor. Here we also find many of the services available to passengers (ticket and check-in counters, boutiques, shops, cloakroom and restaurants).

    Shopping at Dorval

    With a new shopping concourse, Dorval honours its promise to offer travellers products and services that fulfil their needs in a warm and elegant setting so typical of Montreal, all at prices comparable to those found in downtown retail establishments.

    Coming or going, travellers can now delight in a variety of attractive boutiques which feature everything from novelty items to handicrafts and souvenirs. Those who enjoy leafing through the offerings of bookstores and news-stands or indulging a sweet tooth will find themselves in seventh heaven. Anyone looking for speedy services – banking or insurance – will find it on the spot! There are also three boutiques nestled in the heart of Dorval’s domestic finger, a novel shopping recourse sure to please all travellers. In the spring, a bistro and restaurant will join these new retail arrivals in this sector.

    Dorval’s expanded restaurant facilities serve up something for everyone’s taste. Marriot Catering offers you a choice of 15 small and large restaurants, some of them ideal for a quick snack and others for those who want to sit back and enjoy a full-course meal..

    Improvement Programme

    ADM has implemented a programme for the modernization and improvement of its airport facilities – a programme that requires an investment of $190 million over five years. Already in 1993, 1994 and 1995, ADM spent more than $110 million on many different projects. Between 1993 and 1996, the following were among the projects either completed or launched:

    Construction of a new ramp on the Arrivals level to accommodate taxi, limousine, bus and minibus traffic and designation of an area for the exclusive use of private vehicles picking-up arriving passengers; erection of a marquee to protect users in unpleasant weather; and the addition of a third lane to the drop-off area on the Departures level

    Expansion and modernization of the domestic arrivals lounge including installation of new baggage carrousels to improve both service and aesthetic appearance, and to comply with new fire regulations.
    Design of a new transborder departure area including moving a cooling tower and construction of a baggage room to conform to American Government standards and increase baggage processing capacity, as well as to provide greater flexibility.

    Redesign and expansion of the domestic finger including refurbishing of ceilings; construction of new vertical access; refinishing of walls, columns and floors in the public areas; renovation of the washrooms; and remodelling a boarding lounge. This work is intended to make the waiting rooms more comfortable for clients and to improve access to the waiting room located on the main floor of the finger.

    A temporary international concourse has been retrofitted at the Western end of the terminal building. It can accommodate up to eight wide-bodied jets. The project primarily involves the refurbishing of departure lounges and the acquisition of a few boarding bridges.

    Expansion of the terminal’s main facade, joining of the transborder and domestic arrivals lounges, erection of a marquee on the upper ramp and construction of an international finger at Dorval to handle scheduled international flights – these are just a few of the projects ADM is working on.

    Air Cargo

    Montreal’s international airports provide good access to the East coast of North America, home of one of the heaviest concentrations of consumers in the world. Through Dorval and Mirabel, one can reach up to 100 million people within a radius of 1,000 km, which means that the airports provide direct access to one third of the entire population of Canada and the United States.

    Mirabel and Dorval link shippers and forwarders with an extensive, fully developed highway network, via highly efficient intermodal trucking services. This road network allows users to rapidly reach every major destination in the Eastern seaboard, from Halifax to Miami, Chicago and the American MidWest.

    Montreal’s comprehensive intermodal network is rounded out by the Port of Montreal, the second most important stop for East coast North American container traffic, and the extensive railway systems operated by Canadian Pacific and Canadian National. And as the airport authority says: “The quality of the road network and trucking services serving Dorval and Mirabel make each airport as desirable a destination for shipping goods to Europe as they are a drop-off point.”

    The absence of congestion at Mirabel and Dorval makes them highly accessible and extremely efficient. They offer all the advantages of major North American airports, without the delays and inconveniences that one finds in many other centres of the same type.

    When cargo must be stored, Montreal’s airports have all the space required. Mirabel offers more than 60,000 m2 of warehouse space, while Dorval provides 40,000 m2. Cargo handlers at both airports are experts at handling valuable materials, including anything from diamonds to works of art destined for major expositions. The same care is exercised for all merchandise – from envelopes to automobiles – irrespective of its size. This also holds true for perishable goods, from flowers and plants to food. Security is guaranteed and access to storage sites is severely restricted.

    For many years, ADM offers an incentive landing price schedule in order to encourage international cargo activities in Mirabel. This initiative measure allowed obtaining important cargo operators and among them can cited FedEx, Air France and Lufthansa.

    The landing price schedule consists of decreasing rates determined according to the total weight of aircraft operated by the airline company during a period of 12 months.

    Total cost per year
    Total cost per flight
    1 flight per month
    6 954 $
    579 $
    1 flight per week
    30 132 $
    579 $
    5 flights per week
    111 983 $
    431 $
    20 %
    7 flights per week
    145 775 $
    400 $
    31 %

    Airport of the World: Lambert St. Louis International Airport

    Lambert St. Louis International Airport is the home base for our Airline of the World of this issue. Established in October of 1923, Lambert-St. Louis International Airport is now the 3rd fastest growing airport in the world. Lambert is the 11th busiest airport in the U.S. for aircraft operations and 15th in total passengers. The airport sits on 1,980 acres and currently owns an additional 800 acres through its Noise Mitigation/Land Acquisition Program. Lambert has 83 gates serving 9 major airlines: America West, American, Continental, Delta, Northwest, Southwest, Trans World, United and USAir; as well as 5 commuter airlines, 4 charters, and 9 cargo operators.  In 1994, there were 479,943 aircraft operations, and 23,362,671 passengers passed through Lambert. In May 1995, there were approximately 1,354 daily departing and arriving flights.  Among the major airports in the country, Lambert boasts the 2nd lowest operations and maintenance cost per enplaned passengers at $4.66. The airport has a $4.5 billion economic impact on the St. Louis region. Lambert employs over 19,000 people through airlines, vendors, service companies, and the City of St. Louis. Of the 19,000 employees, 606 are City employees.

    Download PDF: 14 – Airport of the World – Lambert St. Louis

    Airports of the World: Manchester Airport

    Manchester Airport now operates two terminals. Both terminals are served by a dedicated spur from Junction 5 off the M56, and are clearly signposted from all main access roads. Each terminal has a range of shops, a choice of restaurants and licensed bars, with banking and foreign exchange facilities available in both. In October 1996 a new Skylink was opened which links Terminal 1 and Terminal 2. It also provides a link to the Airport’s rail station. The Skylink with moving walkways connects Terminal 2 with Terminal 1 International and Terminal 1 Domestic via the Rail Station.

    Manchester Airport has been growing rapidly over the past few years. Nowadays 15 Million passengers use Manchester Airport each year. Manchester Airport offers services to mayor and regional destinations all over the UK and the European Continent. Direct intercontinental services are available as well to destinations in the USA, Far East (Singapore and Hong Kong), and Africa. Manchester is conveniently located in the UK, providing good transfer connections to domestic destinations in the UK.

    Passenger Services
    Manchester Airport offers its passengers an extensive array of shopping and eating facilities. There are around 40 shops and more than 20 bars and restaurants on the airport premises. Banks, car rental and four hotels are available as well.

    All check-in halls are located on the upper level of each terminal and are clearly signposted from the approach roads. Airtours International have their own dedicated check-in hall which is situated on the lower level of Terminal 1 International. It is signposted from the approach roads. For passengers checking-in for Airtours International flights there is a drop off area at the entrance.

    Major tour operators are represented in the check-in halls in Terminal 1 International and Terminal 2, for late collection of tickets, assistance with check-in and general enquiries.

    All UK and Northern Ireland flights departing from Terminal 1 Domestic will be required to pass through a security search and hand baggage will be x-rayed. The passenger will not be required to present his passport. International passenger will be required to present their passport to be examined by HM Immigration Officials once they have been through security.

    Visitors at Manchester Airport
    Manchester Airport offers many services for visitors as well. Aviation enthusiasts can watch plane activities from the spectators terrace, visit the Aviation Shop or take a guided tour.

    Located at Terminal 1 Spectator Terrace and at the Aviation Viewing Park, the Aviation Shop offers everything from aircraft radios, books, souvenirs and models, to the Airport’s official monthly guide, ‘Flight Check’. The Aviation Shops are operated by the Aviation Society.

    The Aviation Viewing Park is open every day of the year (excluding Christmas Day) from 0830 till dusk. There is plenty of room for cars with over 300 parking spaces, including parking for the disabled, all offering great views of the aircraft without even the leaving the car. For coach parties there are four spaces available. There is a charge of £1.00 per vehicle weekdays and £2.00 weekends and bank holidays.

    Trained tour guides provide information on many aspects of the aviation and travel industry. The Tour Centre, located on the Terminal 1 Spectator terrace, holds displays from airlines, specialist aviation videos, and provides a good view of the Airport. Tours are available for educational bodies (aged 4 and upward) or public groups, and can be booked directly through the Tour Centre.


    Manchester Airport’s mission is “to be the best world airport” The environment core value is to be:- “a world leader in environmental excellence operating a sustainable business”

    The number of people wanting to use Manchester Airport is increasing and, by 2005, is expected to reach 30 million a year. While bringing many benefits to the region, this growth will affect the environment. The future success is linked to how well the airport is able to control that effect. To make sure they do this correctly, they have set up an environmental department to advise the company on environmental control, planning, company policy and to monitor progress. in this vital area.

    In 1989 the airport reviewed its environmental policies and initiatives and talked to local residents to find out how much of an effect it have on their lives. The booklet “Towards a Better Environment” was the first comprehensive environmental policy and was widely acclaimed as an example for others to follow. It is known that to support the regional economy into the next century, the airport need to further develop its environment policies into a well thought out long-term environment plan. This should cover the key issues and concerns and be tied into our other corporate policies and plans. It should be a document which everyone believes in and which clearly and publicly announces its commitment, which is produced after talking with:

    • representatives of local communities, including the Manchester Airport Consultative Committee (MACC)
    • the customers (airlines and tenants);
    • other organisations in the aviation industry;
    • environmental experts;
    • and local authorities

    Sustainability means meeting today’s needs while making sure future generations are able to satisfy their own needs. The Aviation demand in Europe is rapidly growing and this is offering opportunities for increased benefits. If the airport is to capitalise on these opportunities it must accept the responsibilities that come with these opportunities.

    Achieving sustainability means that the company has to understand how the world is changing. The Airport Company must then ensure that its development and operation are in step with its changing commercial, social, political and environmental situation.

    Manchester Airport PLC has an in house Environment Department, staffed by experts in environmental management. However all staff from the shop floor to Executive Directors, have specific environmental targets and responsibilities. The airport also recognise that it is the surrounding communities that are most affected by its operation and development.

    Second Runway

    On 15 January 1997, the UK Government approved the development of a £172 million second runway at Manchester Airport. This landmark development is needed to meet the projected air traffic demand in the North of England, generate almost 50,000 new jobs, and provide a massive boost to the regional economy.

    The second runway will be 3,050 metres long and 390 metres to the south of the existing runway. There would be a 1,850 metre stagger between runway ends and aircraft would use one runway for departures, the other for arrivals. The new runway would not be used at night. The runway would cross the Wilmslow – Altrincham (A538) Road and the River Bollin, which will be diverted through a large tunnel.

    Why a second runway is needed?

    Manchester Airport is one of the success stories in the North of Britain. It is the UK’s third largest airport, and in terms of international traffic, one of the world’s top 20. Over the past 10 years the Airport has grown rapidly from 4 million passengers per year in 1980 to almost 15 million in 1996.

    The growth in air travel is expected to continue. The latest forecasts predict that by the year 2005, some 30 million passengers per year will be using Manchester Airport.

    To handle the expected traffic growth, a second runway is needed. Even now, at busy periods, the single runway is operating at its maximum capacity. Without a second runway, delays and congestion would increase to such a point, that new airlines wanting to serve Manchester are likely to be turned away, denying passengers the opportunity to fly from their own local airport.

    Economic Benefits

    The growth of the Airport has been one of the success stories in the health of the local and regional economy. Many thousands of jobs already depend on Manchester Airport. Over 15,000 people are employed on the site, with many thousands more away from the Airport in related businesses.

    The development of Manchester Airport offers one of the greatest potential sources of new job creation in the North West. With a second runway it is likely that some 50,000 new jobs would be created. The decision to grant permission for the new runway is the most important step forward for the Region in decades – important for commerce, important for travel and tourism and important for local and regional employment prospects.

    A Major Construction Boost for the Region

    It is vital that the new runway is available for use as soon as possible to provide additional capacity for airlines and their passengers. The construction of the second runway will be a major civil engineering and environmental project; one of the largest in the North West. The works are expected to take some three years to complete.

    The second runway would be 3,050 metres long, parallel and 390 metres to the south of the existing runway. There would be a 1,850 metre stagger between the runway ends, and aircraft would usually use the new runway for departures and the existing runway for arrivals.

    The work will require a significant volume of material to be imported, mainly stone from the Peak District. The Airport Company hope to be able to carry at least 70% of this material by rail. This will remove over 185,000 potential lorry trips from the local roads, replaced by 3 trains a day.

    Community Guarantees

    The Second Runway proposal has been the subject of a detailed and comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment. Careful consideration has been paid to the environmental impact of the scheme and the effect of the development on the Airport’s neighbours. A far reaching environmental mitigation package has been drawn up and legally binding guarantees have been agreed with local communities.

    Long term measures will be put in place to limit the noise impact of the Airport operation. Over the last ten years, with the switch to modern quieter aircraft, there have been significant decreases in noise levels around the Airport, despite the increases in air traffic. This will continue and the Airport has made a legally binding guarantee that measured noise levels upto 2011 will be no worse than they were in 1992.

    Over half of the runway site is already within the existing perimeter of the Airport. Of the new land outside the Airport, over half of it has been set aside for environmental works. The second runway will inevitably impact on the local landscape, however the scheme includes an extensive programme of environmental improvement measures.

    Expert ecologists have worked closely with the project engineers to conserve habitats where possible and minimise intrusion into the most valuable areas. It is proposed to move some of the most valuable habitats and restore ecologically important sites.

    Large areas of new woodland will be planted, the equivalent of 50 football pitches, this is almost six times the area that would be lost. Some existing ponds would be lost, although for each one, at least two new ponds will be created. This means that over 90 new or restored ponds form part of the second runway scheme.

    Measures will also be put in place to protect birds and animals affected by the runway construction. New habitats will be created, and the animal themselves will be sensitively moved away from the construction area.

    Ground transport – vital for easy access

    The success of any airport depends on the quality of links to it. A variety of measures are being put in place to increase the use of public transport. The rail link is already a great success, the extension of the Metrolink light rail system and the expansion of the rail network are key priorities.

    The Public Inquiry – the Inspector’s conclusions

    The Public Inquiry into the Second Runway ran from June 1994 to March 1995 and lasted some 101 days. This was one of the largest Public Inquiries to be held in the North West. The Inspector’s Report and the Secretaries of State’s decision that permission for the project be granted, were published on the 15th January 1997.

    The Inspector concluded “Manchester Airport is a vitally important asset for the Region” and that the beneficial effect of the airport would be “huge.

    In considering the package of environmental measures, the Inspector judged; “the impressive, wide ranging and comprehensive S106 Agreement would secure substantial levels of mitigation to reduce the harmful effects as low as reasonably practicable….and the proposals would contribute, so far as possible, to the objective of ensuring that development and growth are sustainable.”

    Taking account of the benefits as well as the environmental impact, the Inspector’s final conclusion was that the case for planning permission was, in his own words, “overwhelming”.

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    Rotterdam Airport

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